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Appendix 1 - Types of hard disks

Appendix 2 - Configurations of Jumpers

Appendix 3 - Methods to use hard disks of more than 528 MB

Appendix 4 - external Hard disks

Appendix 5 - more common Problems

Updated page
12/13/2000


Author:
Juan Herrerías Rey
 

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To install a hard disk


 

Appendix 1 - Types of hard disk

Nowadays, only two types of hard disk are used in the world of the PC: the IDE and the SCSI (read "escasi"). The difference takes root, as in general between other hard disks, both in the internal thing and in the way of getting connected and of communicating with the computer.

IDE

The discs IDE are the most habitual; they offer a yield reasonably raised at an economic price (approximately 3 pesetas the megabyte compared with approximately 50 for a diskette) and they are more or less easy to install. Nevertheless, they turn out to be limited to a maximum number of 4 devices (and this with the checkers EIDE, the original IDE can only handle 2).

His connection is realized by means of a flat cable with connectors with 40 pines placed in two tiers (apart from the power cutoff point, which is common for all the types of hard disk). And so, to identify correctly a disc IDE is enough to observe the presence of this connector, although to be sure to 100 % we will have to look for a few microswitches ("jumpers") that, in number from 2 to 4, allow to choose the order of the devices (that is to say, if they behave like "Teacher" or like "Slave").

SCSI

This technology is much less used, but not for being bad, but for being relatively expensive. These discs are usually more rapid at the time of transmitting information, simultaneously that they use less to the processor to do it, what is translated in a services increase. It is typical and almost exclusive of expensive computers, network servants and great Apple Macintosh.

The connectors SCSI are multiple, as there it are the variants of the norm: SCSI-1, SCSI-2, Wide SCSI, Ultra SCSI... There can be planes of 50 contacts in 2 tiers, or of 68 contacts, or not planes with connector of 36 contacts, with mini-connector of 50 contacts...

A track to identify them can be that, in a chain of devices SCSI (up to 7 ó 15 devices that are inserted along a cable or cables, like the bulbs of a Christmas tree), every device has a number that identifies it, that in general it is possible to select. For it there will be a jumpers tier, or a revolving wheel, which is for what we will have to look.

MFM, ESDI

Very similar, especially for the fact that they are descatalogados. His speed turns out to be unbearable, more similar to that of a diskette that to that of a modern hard disk. One treats 5,25 inches as heavy pots, as format almost always, with capacities of 10, 20, 40 or up to gentle 80 maximum.

Typical in the first PCs and some 286, in Spain are known by the users of the venerable Amstrad 1512 or 1640, for example. He has no sense to extend a computer that possesses one of these pieces of junk, although if he wishes it it is possible that it finds the necessary thing in some scrapping or similar. His principal characteristic takes root in the use of 2 cables of information instead of one, as well as in an "intimate" union with his checker, who is the one that usually keeps the information of the disc, not the BIOS of the computer.

Personally I recommend to him if it has 286 or similar that he has had left a child, to take it to a municipal scrapping (be ecological) and buy second-hand 486 for less than 20.000 pesetas (included monitor), or to wear out 100.000 in a flaming new Celeron.

Appendix 2 - Configurations of Jumpers

In the following table there are gathered almost all the cases that can arise at the time of installing devices IDE, good in a checker classic IDE, well EIDE. Also, when the limit of the classic IDE excels itself, there is indicated if the step is convenient for EIDE (if his checker prefers to change for one of this technology).

One makes notice that many hard disks do not do distinction between teacher without slave (MsE in the table) and teacher (M in the table).

Checkers classic IDE (up to 2 devices)

Situation origin

Action

Situation solution

Remarks

1 disc rapid (MsE) or of big capacity

To add hard disk

Ancient disc M

New disc E

Simple; few problems

1 disc slow (MsE) or of little capacity

To add hard disk

New disc M

Ancient disc E

Simple; sometimes, to reject the ancient one

2 discs (M and E)

To add hard disk

To reject 1 disc; to put the most rapid like M

Not to reject, to buy EIDE; to see here

1 disc (M)

1 CD - ROM (E)

To add hard disk

More rapid disc M; CD - ROM connected to card sound

Also, to buy checker EIDE; to see here

2 discs (M and E)

1 CD - ROM connected to card sound

To add hard disk

To reject 1 disc; to put the most rapid like M

Also, to buy checker EIDE; to see here

1 disc (MsE)

To add CD - ROM

To connect CD - ROM to card sound

Also, hard disk M and CD - ROM AND (possible low yield)

2 discs (M and E)

To add CD - ROM

To connect CD - ROM to card sound

Also, to buy checker EIDE (more complex)



Checkers EIDE (up to 4 devices in 2 channels)

Situation origin

Action

Situation solution

Remarks

1 disc (MsE in 1st) rapid or of big capacity

To add hard disk

Ancient disc MsE in 1st

Disc new MsE in 2nd

Simple; to verify if 2nd it is qualified. Also, ancient M in 1st, new E in 1st

1 disc (MsE in 1st) slow or of little capacity

To add hard disk

Disc new MsE in 1st

Ancient disc MsE in 2nd

Simple; to verify if 2nd it is qualified

2 discs (MsE in 1st and MsE in 2nd)

To add hard disk

2 discs in 1st (M and E), 1 disc in 2nd (MsE)

Not to place a rapid disc with the slow one

2 discs (M and E in 1st)

To add hard disk

Disc new MsE in 2nd

If the new one is very rapid, to exchange 1st for 2nd

3 discs (M and E in a channel, MsE in other)

To add hard disk

New disc E of the solitary disc

Not to mix slow and rapid discs

4 discs (M and E in 1st, M and E in 2nd)

To add hard disk

To reject the slowest disc for the new one

 

1 hard disk (MsE in 1st)

1 CD - ROM (MsE in 2nd)

To add hard disk

Discs MsE in 1st and 2nd; CD - ROM connected to card sound

Also, discs in 1st, CD - ROM in 2nd; not to mix discs and CD



Nomenclature

General remarks

M = teacher

E = slave

MsE = teacher without slave

1st = primary channel or the first channel of EIDE

2nd = secondary channel or the second channel of EIDE

Some hard disks are not compatible between themselves, especially between ancient models and new models.

The CD - ROM are slower than the hard disks, except for very ancient discs; not to mix them.

The 1st EIDE channel corresponds to the IDE only one.

Appendix 3 - Methods to use hard disks of more than 528 MB

First of all, verify again that it possesses neither in his current checker nor BIOS of the way LBA; sometimes it is slightly secret in the BIOS, or by means of the use of some controler ("driver") in the file CONFIG.SYS, therefore it must check the diskettes of his checker (if they exist), to the search of some file "README.TXT", "READ.ME", or similar.

If it are true that it cannot use the way LBA, prove some of these methods:

  • to buy a card checker new EIDE who yes supports it, replacing it with current his or disabling it if it is integrated to the motherboard (which is done by means of the BIOS or by means of some jumper in the proper badge). It is a good method, although sometimes something complex, depending especially on the clarity or not on the instructions that accompany the checker;
  • to use a controler that included in the files of starter of the hard disk (typically in the "CONFIG.SYS") emulates for software the way LBA. It can be a simple and effective method, although it will depend on the quality and compatibility of the above mentioned controler (many do not give problems with TWO or Windows 95, but yes with Windows NT or the review of Windows 95 "OSR2").
    Some hard disks come with this class of included utilities, therefore it can praise his buy for a mark or other one. Bear in mind if it uses this system that certain utilities that use the access to disc to low level, like the desfragmentadores (in the Utilities Norton and the others) can be incompatible with the controler, therefore he will have to read in depth all information that accompanies him. Some very secondhand controlers are sfhgbsfhdjg, that it can find in:
  • be restated if what he needs really is a bigger hard disk; it can be much more useful to buy to him a unit Zip (100 MB the disc), Jaz (1.000 MB) or magneto optics (from 128 to 640 MB, and almost indestructible) to him. For more information about this, go to my Storage section).

Appendix 4 - external Hard disks

When the casing of the computer already does not allow to lodge any more devices, what in a dessert unit can be very quickly, imposes going out on the outside on itself. The external casings for hard disks can be the solution, although with tones according to which of two types of casing we choose:
  • casing got connected to the checker IDE: it is the most advisable, since the speed remains inalterable (the computer neither knows in fact, it does not even matter for him, if the disc is inside or out of the computer). His installation basically consists of putting it in the external casing and connecting a cable - adapter in the computer, generally in the shape of a plaquita in the area of the cards of expansion; then it is formed exactly just as if it was inside the computer (like Teacher, Slave...)
  • casing connected to the parallel port: it turns out to be a bad option, since these ports are much slower than the interface IDE; also, it can cause problems with the printer. If despite this you need to make use of this type of casing, place out the slowest disc (or the CD - ROM, for example), and look for a model that checker includes a card with an extra parallel port, to support the original for the printer, scanner, Zip or other devices that make use of this connector.

Any way set to use something external: why does not he buy a unit external Jaz? It will take 1.000 MB as a disc, and so many discs as he could pay... If he wants to know more, go to Storage).

Appendix 5 - more common Problems

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