Dictionary of the Hardware - I/Q
This is a very particular dictionary; as his name indicates, it will not find all the proper terms of the computer science, but "only" those that concern the hardware, especially the initials, of dark meaning, especially if the English language is not known.
Devices and devices appear not only, but also words that refer to protocols, norms, or very basic terms of the software or which relation with the hardware makes essential to know his meaning.
For his extension, it has split into 3 documents, including this one. To find a word:
I/O: Input/Output, entry / exit. Generally it alludes to devices or ports of communication (series, parallel, joystick...) or to the card that controls them (if they are not integrated to the motherboard).
IA32: Intel Architecture 32, the set of instructions of 32 bits that understand the compatible microprocessors Intel.
IA64: Intel Architecture 64, the set of instructions of 64 bits that is designed for the future compatible microprocessors Intel of 64 bits, like the Favor.
IDE: Integrated Drive Electronics, disc with the integrated electronics. A technology for the design and handling of devices, generally hard disks; nowadays the standard between the computers PCs of "normal" services. The maximum number of devices that can be handled by a checker IDE is 2, while if it is EIDE they can be up to 4.
IEEE 1394: to see "FireWire".
IPW: Incremental Packet Writer, incremental engraver of bundles. A method used in modern tape recorders of CD - ROM to manage more efficiently the writing of the information.
IRQ: Interrupt ReQuest, request of interruption. Each of the channels used to manage many devices hardware, like cards of expansion or checkers. In the ancient XT there were 8, in computers ATs and Superiors 16 (from 0 to 15).
ISA: Industry Standard Architecture, a type of slot or groove of expansion of 16 bits capable of offering up to 16 MB/s to 8 MHz.
ISDN: the English word for "RDSI".
Jaz: device of storage of information, consisting of a unit reader - tape recorder and a support of information in the shape of cartridge of approximately 3.5 inches and capacity 1 ó 2 GB. Designed by the company Iomega.
jumper: type of switch of very small size that is used in numerous pieces harware, especially the motherboard. It consists of two metallic sideburns that must join by means of a metallic piece generally covered in turn with plastic.
K5: microprocessor of AMD similar to the classic Pentium.
K6: microprocessor of AMD that MMX includes, of yield superior to the Pentium MMX although lower than Pentium II.
K6-2: also called "K6-3D"; microprocessor of AMD that MMX and the technology includes "3DNow!" for the applications handling 3D, of yield equal or superior to Pentium II.
KB: kilobyte, multiple of the byte equivalent to 1024 bytes. More correct, although less used, it is the form "kb"; also "Kb" is used.
LAN: Local Area Net, network of local area. A network of computers of average size, it disperses for a building or even for everything a city.
LBA: Logical Block Address, logical directions of blocks. Technology used on the hard disks of more than 528 MB to overcome the limitation this size that the BIOS and TWO would impose on them.
LCD: Liquid Crystal Display, screen of liquid crystal. Electronic engineering that allows to create flat screens.
LED: Light Emitting Diode, issuing diode of light. A luminous device of small size used in electronics.
LINUX: an operating system multiuser and multitask based on UNIX.
LPT: a way of naming to the ports parallel (LPT1, LPT2...).
LPX: a format of basic badges.
master's degree: in "main" Spanish, the name assigned to the first one of two devices of a channel IDE, in contrast to the "slave", which is the second one.
MB: megabyte multiple of the byte equivalent to 1024 kilobytes. More correct, although less used, it is the form "Mb". Coloquialmente, "gentle".
MFLOP: a million FLOPs; to see FLOP.
MFM: a very ancient type of checker for hard disk, before to the IDE.
MGA: Monochrome Graphics Adapter, monochrome adapter of screen. The first graphic card used in the PCs, capable of working only in way of monochrome text.
MHz: megahertz multiple of the equal hertz to 1 million hertzes. Used to measure the "gross speed" of the microprocessors.
Mike Channell: a type of slot or groove of expansion of 32 bits capable of offering up to 40 MB/s to 10 MHz. In desuetude, it had little due success to be a design exclusive property of IBM.
MIDI: Digital interface for Instruments of Music, used to handle audio digitalmente with the help of computers or other electronic instruments (keyboards, samplers...).
MIPS: Million Instructions In Second that there can realize a microprocessor, a measurement of the yield of the same one.
MMX: Multimedia eXtensions, group of instructions for microprocessor developed by Intel that increase the multimedia yield of the microprocessors that support them.
modem: MOdulador-DEModulador, device hardware that transforms the digital signs of the computer into analogical telephone sign and vice versa.
multimedia: the set of image, sound and video applied to the PC.
ns: the nanosecond, submultiple from the second equal one to 10 raised at least 9 seconds.
NTSC: system of codification of the television sign used for the most part in the USA.
OCR: Optic Character Recognition, optical recognition of characters, associated usually with the digitization of texts by means of scanner; it turns the digital "photo" of the text into text editable with a text processor.
OEM: those components provinientes of the selling wholesale, therefore it lack of true extra that could have the versions in individual box.
OSD: "On Screen Display", or "presentation (of information) on screen". Method with which some monitors (and TV sets) present the information of adjustment of the same ones on the proper screen, generally superposed to the image.
overclocking: skill for which one forces a microprocessor to work over his nominal speed.
OverDrive: family of microprocessors of Intel dedicated to the update of teams. They exist with nuclei of 486 and of Pentium with or without MMX.
P&P: to see "Plug and (y) Play".
PAL: system of codification of the television sign used for the most part in Europe.
PC: Personnel Computer, personal computer; name (registered) with that it baptized IBM in 1.981 to which it would turn into standard of the user's computer science; for extension, any compatible computer of another mark based on similar beginning.
PC100: memory of the type SDRAM capable of working at a 100 MHz speed.
PC133: memory of the type SDRAM capable of working at a 133 MHz speed.
PCI: a type of slot or groove of expansion of 32 bits capable of offering up to 132 MB/s to 33 MHz.
PCMCIA: Personnel Computer Memory Card International Association, the standard for connector and devices of size credit card used in portable computers.
PDA: Personal Digitalis Assistant, a type of portable ordering mike of very limited size that generally is controlled by means of a tactile screen.
Pentium: microprocessor of Intel of 32 bits with architecture to superclimb, capable of doing the parallel prosecution of two instructions for clock cycle and with a mathematical unit much improved with regard to that of 486.
pin: each of the electrical connectors of many elements hardware, like the "legs" of many microprocessors.
IT CHIRPED: technology used on the hard disks modern IDE to raise the valuation of maximum theoretical transference up to 16,6 MB/s in the models that expire with the most advanced way, the "PIO-4".
pitch: or "dot-pitch", the distance between two points ("dots") of the same color in a monitor. Also so called point breadth.
pixel: each of the individual points represented on a screen of computer.
Plug and Play: technology that allows the autodetection of such devices like cards of expansion on the part of the computer, in order to facilitate his installation.
PnP: to see "Plug and (N) Play".
POST: Power On Self Test, the test that the BIOS of the computer realizes to the devices on having started.
PPP: Point to Point Protocol, protocol of communications on which many networks are based.
ppp: "points for inch" (in English, "dpi"). Number of points that prints a printer on every inch; "300 dpi" it means 300x300 points in every square inch.
PRN: name with which TWO it refers to the printer port in use (LPT1 or other).
protocol: it is said about the standard used for the transmission of the information, especially in case of computers networks.
owner: it is said about the design or element which license of use and development is not public, but it is exploited by a company exclusive.
PS/2: a scale of computers of IBM. Due to the use generalized in them of mice with pin mini dough, by extension it is used to refer to this type of connector.