Dictionary of the Hardware - A/H
This is a very particular dictionary; as his name indicates, it will not find all the proper terms of the computer science, but "only" those that concern the hardware, especially the initials, of dark meaning, especially if the English language is not known.
Devices and devices appear not only, but also words that refer to protocols, norms, or very basic terms of the software or which relation with the hardware makes essential to know his meaning.
For his extension, it has split into 3 documents, including this one. To find a word:
386: microprocessor (CPU) of 32 bits so much interns as externally; without cache memory or mathematical integrated co-processor. Invented by Intel, it exists of other marks as AMD.
386SX: microprocessor (CPU) of 32 bits internally and 16 externally; without cache memory or mathematical integrated co-processor. Invented by Intel.
486: microprocessor (CPU) of 32 bits so much interns as externally; with cache memory and mathematical co-processor integrated according to model (DX or SX). Invented by Intel, it exists of other marks like AMD, Cyrix or Texas Instruments.
486DX: microprocessor (CPU) of 32 bits so much interns as externally; version with cache memory and mathematical integrated co-processor. Invented by Intel, it exists of other marks like AMD, Cyrix or Texas Instruments.
486DX2: microprocessor (CPU) of 32 bits so much interns as externally; with cache memory and mathematical co-processor integrated and the speed double internally (DX2) that at level it tackles. Invented by Intel, it exists of other marks like AMD, Cyrix, Texas Instruments.
486DX4: microprocessor (CPU) of 32 bits so much interns as externally; with cache memory and mathematical co-processor integrated and the speed triple internally that at level it tackles. Invented by Intel, it exists of other marks like AMD, Cyrix, Texas Instruments.
486SX: microprocessor (CPU) of 32 bits so much interns as externally; with internal cache memory but without integrated mathematical co-processor. Invented by Intel, it exists of other marks as Cyrix.
8086: microprocessor (CPU) of 16 bits internally and 8 externally; without cache memory or mathematical integrated co-processor. Invented by Intel.
8088: microprocessor (CPU) of 8 bits so much interns as externally; without cache memory or mathematical integrated co-processor. Invented by Intel.
80286: finished official denomination of 286.
80386: finished official denomination of 386.
80486: finished official denomination of 486.
A: the letter that designates to the first disk drive in the operating system TWO.
ACPI: Advanced Configuration and Power Interface, a system for which in the most modern computers it is possible to control the electrical consumption of the computer for software.
AGP: Advanced Graphics Port, or Port Advanced for Graphs. Type of slot dedicated exclusive to graphic cards, of services equal or superior to the PCI depending on the versió of AGP that talks each other (1x or 2x).
ASCII: one of the first and most secondhand codes of characters. It exists in versions of 7 or 8 bits.
AT: Advanced Technology, type of computer compatible with the original AT of IBM; in general, any computer compatible with a mike 286.
IT TIES: Advanced Technology Attachment, device connector of high technology. The standard on which the technology IDE is based.
ATA-2: extension of the standard TIES for design of devices IDE that adds ways IT CHIRPED up to the PIO-4 and the definition of the way of access LBA.
ATA-3: last review of the standard TIES for design of devices IDE that adds major reliability in the ways PEEP and advanced DMA, as well as SMART for the mistakes analysis.
ATAPI: Advanced Technology Attachment Packet Interface, bundle interface of the device high technology connector. The standard that designates the devices that can get connected to checkers TIES (IDE), as for example reading of CD - ROM.
ATX: quite modern format of motherboard which principal characteristics are a better ventilaci'on and accessibility, in addition to the use of pins mini dough and a big integration of components.
B: the letter that designates to the second disk drive in the operating system TWO.
Baby-AT: the format of motherboard most extended in the world PC, in progressive replacement for the ATX, from which it differs between other things for DOUGH uses wide pin for the keyboard and to have a worse disposition of the components.
baud: term used in communications to measure the speed of a device.
BASIC: one of the first computer languages, of very simple use.
BEDO: Burst-EDO, type of memory RAM, of better characteristics than the DRAM, FPM and EDO and similar or better than the SDRAM.
BIOS: Basic Input-Output System, basic system of entry - exit. Program incorporated in a chip of the motherboard that is in charge of realizing the basic functions of handling and configuration of the computer.
bit: minimal unit of information of the memory, equivalent to "yes" (0) or one "not" (1) binary. The union of 8 bits gives place to a byte.
bps: bits per second, unit of data transmission, used principally in reference to modems or communications of network.
buffer: memory dedicated to storing temporarily the information that must process a device hardware so that this one could do it without lowering the yield of the transference. It appears typically on hard disks and CD-ROMs.
burst: English word that it means to blasts.
bus: channel along which electronic information circulates in the shape of bits. The bus breadth is the number of bits transmitted simultaneously by the bus.
byte: information unit consisted of 8 consecutive bits. Every byte can represent, for example, a letter.
C: (1) the letter that designates to the first drive of hard disk or to the first active division of this one in the operating system TWO.
C: (2) one of the computer languages most used at present.
I caught: any type of "intermediate" memory between two devices, which accelerates the communications and data transmissions between them. For extension, 2 is applied to the "level cache memory", that is to say, the one that is in the motherboard, between the microprocessor and the memory.
CAD: Computer Assisted Draw, drawing assisted by computer; generally it refers to specially architectural or ingenieril.
CELP: type of socket for cache memory in modules.
CGA: Computer Graphics Array, or graphic device for computers. A type of graphic card capable of obtaining 320x200 points with 4 colors or 640x200 with 2 colors.
CISC: Complex Instruction Set Chip, a type of microprocessor that understands very long and complex instructions, although it is not capable of executing them at so many speed like a RISC.
clonal: computer mounted from pieces of third manufacturers, in which technology contributed by the assembler does not exist; also so called assembled computer. Also, component changed color by a manufacturer from the original model of other with which it is compatible.
CMOS: Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor, a type of memory that is characterized for consuming very few electric power, what makes her suitable to store information of the BIOS.
COAST: type of socket for cache memory in modules.
COM: acronym with which series o of Communications are designated to each of the ports.
WITH: name with which TWO it refers to the screen or to the keyboard, as it is a question of a device of destination or source of the information.
controler: Spanish way of naming the drivers.
co-processor: any microchip that realizes a specializing operation, helping or liberating to the principal microprocessor from realizing it. Generally, it is understood for such to specially "mathematically", although at present this one is usually integrated in the principal mike.
cps: characters in second that a printer can write.
CPU: Head office Processing Unit or Central process unit. The "brain" of a computer; in general, synonymous of microprocessor. Sometimes it is used there refers to the whole box that contains the motherboard, the mike and the cards of expansion.
cracker: a hacker with destructive or criminal intentions.
CRT: Cathodic Ray Tube, pipe of cathode beams. The technology used in the TV sets and in the classic monitors.
DIMM: type of connector for memory RAM; the modules to be connected have 168 contacts.
spendthrift: device that helps to eliminate the heat generation for a body, in general the microprocessor of the team, sometimes with the collaboration of a fan. For it, he thinks about how to have good conduction of the heat (they are usually of copper) and big surface.
DMA: Direct Memory Access, direct access to memory. Method of managing the devices hardware for which they can gain access straight to the memory without requiring that the microprocessor should manage the process.
docking station: habitual denomination of a device for portable computers that provides them with diverse connectors (keyboard, mouse, monitor, grooves PCI...) allowing to use the portable one as if it was a dessert computer.
TWO: an operating system for PC, monouser and monotask, from that they derive the Windows 95, 98 and ME. There exist versions of TWO of Microsoft, IBM and Digitalis Research, between others.
dot pitch: or point breadth. The distance between two fósforos of the same color on a screen; minor all that is, major clearness.
dpi: dots per inch, points for inch (in Spanish, ppp). Number of points that prints a printer on every inch; 300 dpi means 300x300 points in every square inch.
DRAM: the type of memory original RAM, of worse characteristics than FPM, EDO or SDRAM. Sometimes this term is used incorrectly to refer to the FPM.
driver: small program which function is to control the functioning of a device of the computer under a certain operating system.
DSTN: to see "Dual Scan".
Dual-Scan: type of screen for portable; nowadays it is the standard. The imágen quality depends enough of the exterior lighting.
DVD: Digital Video Device, digital device of video. Optical device of massive storage capable of lodging between 4,7 and 17 GB on every 12 cm disc (of appearance similar to the CDs).
DX: initials with which 486 Intel "finished ones" it knows to the processors 386 ó, those that are not versions of limited capacities (lacking in co-processor in the 486 or external bus of 16 bits in the 386).
ECP: Extend Capability Port, port of widespread capacity. Type of parallel port compatible with the original but that offers major speed services, as well as bidireccionalidad.
EDO: type of memory RAM, of better characteristics than the DRAM and FPM but lower than the SDRAM.
EGA: Extend Graphics Array, or widespread graphic device. A type of graphic card capable of obtaining even 640x350 points with 16 colors.
EIDE: Enhanced IDE, or improved IDE. At present the standard for hard disks handling; also called Atapi or Ata-4. He allows to handle up to 4 devices (hard disks, CD-ROMs...) in two channels separated IDE, each one with his interruption corresponding IRQ. At present, the practical totality of the PCs they go a checker EIDE integrated to the motherboard.
EISA: Extended-ISA, type of slot for cards of enlargement based in standard ISA, but of 32 bits and capable of 32 transference MB/s; at present in desuetude due to the implantation of the PCI.
EMS: expanded memory, a type of top memory (over the first 640 Kb), implemented well by means of hardware or imitated by software as EMM386.EXE.
interlaced: system in consistent desuetude in drawing in the first monitor all the horizontal lines you give birth and later the odd ones, obtaining high cheap resolutions but with big visual weariness.
EPP: Enhanced Paralel Port, improved parallel port. Type of parallel port compatible with the original but that offers major speed services, as well as bidireccionalidad.
scanner: device capable of introducing optical information (documents, photos...) in the computer.
ESDI: Enhanced Small Device Interface, interface improved for small devices. Ancient technology for the design and handling of devices, generally hard disks, today completely in desuetude.
Ethernet: a standard for computers networks much used by his acceptable speed and under cost. It admits different speeds according to the type of used hardware, being the most common 10 Mbits/s and 100 Mbits/s (commonly named Ethernet and Fast Ethernet respectively).
FDD: Floppy Disk Device, English way of naming the disk drive.
FireWire: "cable of fire" or "IEEE 1394", a standard for the devices connection to the computer, so much interns as externally. Of very recent appearance, it is very little widespread but prevee that substitutes EIDE and SCSI, with theoretical speeds starting in 25 MB/s and perhaps coming up to 1 GB / century
flash-BIOS: a BIOS implemented in flash - ROM.
flash - ROM: a type of memory that does not resign on having extinguished the computer, but that can be modified by means of the suitable software.
FLOP: FLoating-Point Operation, operation of floating comma; each of the mathematical operations of the above mentioned class that is capable of realizing a microprocessor. It is used to measure the yield of the same one, generally in million FLOPs (MFLOPs).
floppy: English way of naming to the diskette.
FM: type of technology used in sound cards of average, consistent scale in reproducing the sound by means of a musical synthesizer FM, obtaining a result less real than the offered one by the cards wave table.
FPM: Fast Page Mode, type of memory RAM, of better characteristics than the DRAM but lower than the EDO or SDRAM. Sometimes it is named (incorrectly) DRAM.
FX: initials that there designates a type of chipset of Intel for Pentium known commercially like "Merman" and nowadays in desuetude.
GB: gigabyte multiple of the byte equivalent to 1024 megabytes. More correct, although less used, it is the form Gb. Coloquialmente, jig.
GUI: Graphical User Interface, interface user's graph. He programmes software that manages the interaction with the user of a graphic way by means of the use of icons, menus, mouse...
hacker: computer specialist expert at entering foreign systems without permission, generally to show the low safety of the same ones or simply to demonstrate that it is capable of doing it.
HDD: Hard Disk Device, English way of naming to the hard disk.
Hércules: type of graphic card capable of obtaining 720x350 points with 2 colors.
HSP: type of modem that uses part of the capacities of the microprocessor and of the operating system (generally Windows 95) to realize tasks that in other modems they would realize chips special, reducing his price at the cost of losing versatility and specifying powerful mikes.
HX: initials that there designates a type of chipset of Intel for Pentium known commercially like "Merman II"; of major yield that the FX and VX, nowadays is in desuetude.
Hz: hertz, unit of measurement of the frequency equivalent to 1/second. Used principally for the refreshments of screen of the monitors, in which it is considered to be 60 Hz (to re-draw 60 times the screen every second) like the advisable minimum.