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What is the overclocking?


Risks of the overclocking

How does a mike work

Possibilities for the overclocking

Some recommendations

How much can overclockearse a mike?

The refrigeration

Refrigeration for software

A small practical example

Conclusion

Updated page
6/18/2001


Author:
Juan Herrerķas Rey
 

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The overclocking of the microprocessor


 

Possibilities for the overclocking

Bearing in mind the theory explained in the previous point, we have 3 different possibilities to realize the overclocking:



(1) To rise the multiplier of the mike.

By means of this method we will change only the internal speed of the mike, while the day pupil will remain constant. Thus the only element that he suffers is the mike, while other devices work at his normal speed.

Jumpers to form a mike

We will have to study the manual of the motherboard and see how the change of the multiplier is realized; in the most habitual case so called jumpers will be done by means of a few small microswitches, although in the most modern basic badges it is realized by software, generally inside the BIOS (in this the badges ABIT were the first ones). Even, at the worst, it is possible that the badge detects automatically the theoretical characteristics of the mike and does not allow us to form them to hand... as it happens in any basic badges made by Intel.

Another problem that happens at present is that almost all the mikes Intel from 300 MHz Pentium II (including Pentium III and Celeron "Mendocino"), as well as some previous series, they have the multiplier limited to a few concrete values or I fix to the only value, for example 5x for a 333 MHz Pentium II (5x66).

In such a case, and if we do not have a mike AMD (that or they take the free multiplier as a defect or it can be liberated, as we will see), we will have to try to:



(2) To raise the speed of the bus.

Doing this we will increase the speed both of the microprocessor and of other elements of the computer (the motherboard, the memory, the cards of expansion...). Again, it will be formed by means of jumpers or in the BIOS.

For example, the "official" configuration of a 400 MHz Pentium II is 4x100; if we put a 110 MHz bus , the overclocking would have the following effects:

 

Normal mike
(4x100 = 400 MHz)

Mike overclockeado
(4x110 = 440 MHz)

Memory

100 MHz

110 MHz

Bus AGP

66 MHz

73,3 MHz

Bus PCI

33 MHz

110/3 = 36,6 MHz
110/4 = 27,5 MHz

Bus ISA

8 MHz

9 MHz

Observe how the speed of the different elements is usually related to that of bus (or day pupil) of the mike:

  • in case of the memory, it is usually equal to that of bus, although some basic badges (especially those who use chipsets ROUTE) offer options so that it is "asynchronous" with regard to that of bus;
  • the bus AGP usually works at the bus speed, to 2/3 of this one or, in the current badges, also to 1/2;
  • the bus PCI is usually able to select to 1/2, 1/3 and even 1/4 of the speed of bus;
  • the bus ISA scarcely gives problems, and changes very little.

After the overclocking suffers so many elements, the possible mistakes multiply, since it is enough that an element fails so that we are not successful. Nevertheless, if we obtain it, the services increase will be very big, since we are accelerating almost all the elements of the PC, and we will not be affected by the limitations imposed by the manufacturer of the mike (at least for the time being...).



(3) To change the multiplier and the speed of the bus.

It is a method that can give a lot of game, although again only realizable with mikes without fixed multiplier. We can do authentic marvels, and even manage to accelerate the computer without changing the internal speed of the mike so that he does not suffer, for example changing a Pentium 150 of 2,5x60 to 2x75, what would accelerate the bus PCI and the memory without risk for the mike.

 

Some recommendations

So that an overclocking is successful, it is convenient to continue these small rules:

  1. Realize very well what it is doing BEFORE doing it. Why to cheat us, can this be dangerous (principally for his economy, if it goes so far as to burn the mike).


  2. Be prudent, go calmly. Disconnect the computer of the current (unless the configuration is done in the BIOS, skylight), unburden of static electricity and compare carefully the configurations of the jumpers of the manual with those that you select.


  3. Raise the speed gradually, little by little, and verify whenever the computer works well and of stable form, for which nothing better Windows to execute 9x/NT and a pair of demanding games during a little bit.


  4. Never accent lit without alertness a system overclockeado of whose stability is not sure to 100 %, it is possible that the mike begins being fried and it has been to inform by the smoke... (it is a prank, skylight)


  5. If the overclocking does not work, try to isolate the mistake: is it the mike? The memory, perhaps? Some card very delicate PCI? Once isolated, act consequently:
    - try to select another bus / multiplier combination;
    - if the problem is a bus (ISA, PCI, AGP), look in the BIOS if it can select other divisors, like 1/4 of the speed of the badge for PCI, or 1/2 for AGP;
    - if it is the memory, try to change his speed (of "Fast" a "Low", or to increase them "wait states", or to happen from CAS 2 to CAS 3...)


  6. Be very dependent on the temperature of the components, especially on the mike and on the graphic card (the modern cards AGP warm up enough), and refresh the components the most possible thing. In later paragraphs we will treat about this.


  7. It can raise one or like very much two tenths the voltage of the mike to stabilize it, but it is not advisable, since it implies a high risk: enough more heat will take place, what is not good at all.


  8. Be realistic: in some cases, to raise 33 MHz is already the whole achievement, so I did not wait for miracles. After everything, it is managing five-peseta coins to 4 pesetas, to want to obtain them to 3 is already to abuse.
 


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