How to make a protector against tension increases
The assembly in itself
Let's not forget before continuing, assuring the electrical hose with two plastic girths to protect the connection of possible involuntary pulls, which could produce damages in our assembly.
If we mount a varistor joining the phase and the ground connector (brown with green - yellow) and other between neutral and connector of ground (blue and green - yellow), when it raises the tension over 250 V. will lead the varistor and will create a loss of current across the driver of ground that will make jump our distinguishing switch of the housing. This way it will cut the current and we will save our computer of a discharge.
IT NOTICES: If our installation has not landing, we will use an only one varistor between the cables of the active phase (brown) and the neutral (blue). The protection will be the same way effective since it will jump the magnetotérmico in case of excessive tension increase.
VERY IMPORTANT: If we have not of magnetotérmico or protection differential in the installation of our housings, the use of this assembly becomes ineffective, since it is based on the function that these devices realize; it is more, it would be inadvisable to realize it. Of course, if this happens, my recommendation would be that of installing these devices, since they can save us the life and avoid the possibility of a fire for surcharge of the installation.
Next, we mount the varistores: simply, we will connect a varistor between phase and neutral (brown - blue), other between phase and ground (marrón-verde/amarillo), and other between neutral and ground (azul-verde/amarillo).
This way we make sure that if it raises the tension over 250 nominal volts of the varistores, these will become drivers, provoking the jump of the distinguishing switch, the magnetotérmico or both, managing to save our team of a discharge of surge that might be baneful for our power supply, motherboard, mike, etc.
We already have our assembly completed and ready to tune in. With this simple work we can protect our computer of any tension increase of the network.
This assembly is cost perfectly for almost any domestic appliance of medium consumption (there is varistores of 50 amperes that to 220 V would be capable of supporting 11.000 watios aprox)., so we can use it to protect our engraver of video, music center, TV, etc., protecting us from the classic discharges that take place when we are out of the hearth and that can burn devices as the video (let's remember that the video is never disconnected of the network, it is always in waiting until it is we who make it work, as the source ATX of our computers).
Many houses manufacturers of electronic teams include them inside his devices to protect them from tension increases, it is more, these components are used almost exclusive like protection fuses for teams or professional facilities. If an electronic device breaks down us and we have easy access to the source, we will always be able to verify if it provokes that they jump "the plomillos" of our housing because of a damaged varistor (to see you "damage").
When a tension increase makes to jump our varistores protection, we will disconnect the space protected from the network, and next we restore his normal position, the differential, the magnetotérmico or both. Seguidamente we in our protected space again and we will work plug again.
Possible breakdowns and conclusion
Yes, it is true, our protector might break down and we will have to repair it. We are going to see like solving it.
What raisin if, on having connected the space to the plug, it keeps on jumping the differential or the magneto?
Since there does not happen anything, what it spends that the last increase was so big, or was the last one of time and again of increases, which one or several of our varistores, they could not have born and had been burned, they have remained in short circuit and his sideburns are always comunicandas.
If what it jumps is the magnetotérmico, undoubtedly there has deteriorated the varistor who communicates the phase with the neutral (brown - blue), the solution is simply to replace it with the new one (100 ptas aprox.y overcome the breakdown).
If on the contrary it is the differential the one that jumps, undoubtedly some will have gone away of others two varistores. Solution? To replace them.
Like advice, always to replace three varistores, they are economic and it does not deserve to purify them when one has already gone away.
If we have a polímetro, and we fit the measurement to realize in the scale of resistances or continuity, on having connected between the sideburns of the varistor the measurement bananas, if the varistor is in good condition, an infinite resistance will mark us, and the needle will not move (analogical) or the display of our meter.
If the varistor is damaged, he will lead electricity, the polímetro will whistle and/or the display or needle will put itself to zero Ohm; in this case it will be necessary to replace it.
I hope that this assembly should be useful, and for any doubt or clarification I am at your disposal.